The welding process plays an extremely important role in the whole steel structure production. In all kinds of steel component products, the weight of the welded components accounts for more than 80% of the total steel output. Arc welding is the most common welding method currently used. During welding, the welding rod, weldment and coating are evaporated, condensed and vaporized under high arc temperature, generating a large amount of smoke and gas, polluting the welding environment of the workshop. , endangering people's health.
2. Allowable concentration of each component of welding fume
China's national standard GB16194-19965 "Sanitary Standard for Welding Welding Smoke in the Air" stipulates that the allowable concentration of welding fumes is 6mg/mâŠƒ; the workshop hygiene standard stipulates that carbon monoxide is less than 30mg per cubic meter and carbon dioxide is less than 10mg per cubic meter. Manganese dioxide is less than 0.2 mg per cubic meter, silica is less than 2 mg per cubic meter, nitrogen oxides are less than 5 mg per cubic meter, ozone is less than 0.3 mg per cubic meter, and fluorine is less than 1 mg per cubic meter.
3. Harm of welding fumes
Welding fume generated main hazards from the following ingredients: metal and non-metal oxide, fluoride, and various salts including carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides and the like. Insoluble substances in these ingredients can cause silicosis, and some metal oxides are prone to cause metal heat symptoms such as tearing, noise, nausea, memory loss and other bad feelings.
4. Welding dust pollution prevention and control method
(1) Purification method of welding fume
In order to improve the welding environment and prevent air pollution, it is necessary to collect the smoke generated during the welding process, prevent it from spreading in the workshop, and then remove it with high-efficiency purification equipment.
There are two ways to collect welding fume: A. Local exhaust: a smoke exhaust hood is arranged on the side or top of the fixed welding operation point, and the dust is pumped away by using the power of the fan to achieve the purpose of improving the indoor environment. The method is economical, the effect is good, and the energy is saved. The commonly used purification equipment is the mobile welding fume purifier. B. Comprehensive ventilation: In most cases, the workpiece moves the workpiece and the smoke generation point changes continuously. It is impossible to collect the smoke with the local exhaust hood. At this time, in order to maintain a certain degree of cleanliness in the workshop, a comprehensive ventilation method is required. That is, at a certain height of the workshop, a full ventilation hood is set in the area where the smoke is most dense; or a method of blowing while sucking is used to form a gas curtain at a certain height on the upper part of the workshop to lock the rising smoke. And pushed to the exhaust hood to achieve the purpose of eliminating smoke. Compared with the local ventilation method, the full ventilation has a large air volume, poor smoke exhausting effect, and high consumption, especially in the winter heating area, in order to supplement the exhaust heat loss, it requires a large amount of energy. Therefore, the comprehensive ventilation should be rationally analyzed after the analysis according to the specific conditions. The commonly used equipment is the central welding fume purifier.
(2), personal protection
When working in the workshop, strengthening personal protection is an important way to prevent personal injury. According to different hazards, masks, helmets, masks, gas masks, eye protection glasses, earplugs, safety helmets, etc.
There are many pollution factors in the welding workshop. It should be comprehensively controlled from three aspects: pollution source, pollution route and individual protection. The plan should be formulated in combination with the specific conditions of the workshop. It can not be separated from the actual situation and affect the normal production operation. The design of the treatment plan should fully consider various The pollution control method is designed to adopt integrated equipment or facilities on the premise of ensuring the effect of treatment, thereby reducing equipment occupation and saving investment.
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